nofxfans.com 2020 - A Breath of Fresh Air - download the infographic (PDF) by clicking on the image.
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3. What must ships vì chưng to comply with the new nofxfans.com regulations?
The nofxfans.com MARPOL regulations limit the sulphur content in fuel oil. This means ships must use fuel oil which is inherently low enough in sulphur, or install an appropriate exhaust "alternative” method, in order to lớn meet nofxfans.com requirements.
Refineries may blend fuel oil with a high (non-compliant) sulphur content with fuel oil with a sulphur content lower than the required sulphur content to achieve a compliant fuel oil. Additives may be added lớn enhance other properties, such as lubricity.
Some ships limit the air pollutants by installing exhaust gas cleaning systems, also known as “scrubbers”. This is accepted by flag States as an alternative means to meet the sulphur limit requirement. These scrubbers are designed khổng lồ remove sulphur oxides from the ship’s engine & boiler exhaust gases. A ship fitted with a scrubber can use heavy fuel oil, since the sulphur oxides emissions will be reduced lớn a level equivalent to the required fuel oil sulphur limit. By mid-July 2020, some 2,359 systems had formally been reported lớn nofxfans.com as an approved “equivalent method” by Administrations (flag States).
Ships can have engines which use alternative fuels, which may contain low or zero sulphur, for example liquefied natural gas or biofuels.
4. What is nofxfans.com doing khổng lồ ensure compliance with the 0.50% limit?
Monitoring compliance và enforcing the new limit falls under the remit of Governments và national authorities of member States that are Parties khổng lồ MARPOL Annex VI. Flag States (the State of registry of a ship) and port States have rights và responsibilities lớn enforce compliance. nofxfans.com has adopted 2019 Guidelines for port State control under MARPOL Annex VI Chapter 3 (download here).
Ahead of the entry into force of the new limit, on 1 January 2020, nofxfans.com worked with member States as well as industry (including the shipping industry & the bunker supply and refining industry) khổng lồ identify và mitigate transitional issues so that ships may meet the new requirement.
This work included developing guidance và standardised forms for reporting fuel oil non availability if a ship cannot obtain compliant fuel oil, as well as considering verification và control issues.
In October 2018, nofxfans.com"s Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) adopted a MARPOL amendment lớn prohibit the carriage of non-compliant fuel oil for combustion purposes for propulsion or operation on board a ship - unless the ship has an exhaust gas cleaning system ("scrubber") fitted. The amendment entered into force in March 2020 & is intended as an additional measure to tư vấn consistent implementation and compliance & provide a means for effective enforcement by States, particularly port State control.
A set of guidelines for the consistent implementation of the MARPOL regulation was developed by nofxfans.com và issued by the MEPC.
5. Are new fuels being used to lớn meet the 2020 limit?
Yes, new blends of fuel oil for ships have been developed. For example, a gas oil, with a very low sulphur nội dung can be blended with heavy fuel oil khổng lồ lower its sulphur content.
Ships can also choose to switch to lớn a different fuel altogether. Or they may continue khổng lồ purchase heavy fuel oil, but install ”scrubbers” to lớn reduce the đầu ra of SOx in order to lớn levels that ensure compliance with the requirement.
Of course, some ships were already using low sulphur fuel oil to meet the even more stringent limits of 0.10% m/m when trading in the established emission control areas (ECAS). So those fuel oil blends suitable for ECAS also meet the 0.50% m/m limit.
6. Are low sulphur blend fuel oils safe? Can new low sulphur fuels cause problems for a ship’s engine?
All fuel oil for combustion purposes on a ship must meet required fuel oil chất lượng standards, as phối out in nofxfans.com MARPOL Annex VI (regulation 18.3). For example, the fuel oil must not include any added substance or chemical waste that jeopardizes the safety of ships or adversely affects the performance of the machinery.
Through 2020, and into 2021 lớn date, nofxfans.com has not received any reports of safety issues linked to VLSFO.
Nonetheless, during 2020, an nofxfans.com correspondence group was established khổng lồ consider fuel oil safety issues in general và consider the need for further mandatory requirements lớn ensure fuel oil supplied meets the required standards và required quality. The report of the group (MSC 102/6) is available on nofxfans.comDOCS). The report will be discussed at the next nofxfans.com Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) session, MSC 103 in May 2021.
Prior khổng lồ that meeting, the Sub-Committee on Prevention of Pollution from Ships (PPR 8, schedule lớn meet in remote session 22-26 March 2021) will further consider VLSFO fuel quality issues, including possible effects on đen carbon emissions.
Guidance on best practice for fuel oil suppliers has also been issued. The Guidance is intended to lớn assist fuel oil purchasers & users in assuring the unique of fuel oil delivered to và used on board ships, with respect to lớn both compliance with the MARPOL requirements và the safe & efficient operation of the ship. The guidance pertains lớn aspects of the fuel oil purchase up khổng lồ the loading of the purchased fuel oil on board.
Regulations in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) cover issues such as flashpoint (SOLAS regulation II- 2/4.2.1).
An International Standardization Organization (ISO) standard (ISO 8217) specifies the requirements for fuels for use in marine diesel engines và boilers.
ISO has issued a further standard: ISO/PAS 23263:2019 Petroleum products - Fuels (class F) - Considerations for fuel suppliers & users regarding marine fuel unique in view of the implementation of maximum 0.50 % sulphur in 2020. It addresses unique considerations that apply to marine fuels in view of the implementation of the sulphur 2020 limit và the range of marine fuels that will be placed on the market in response. It defines general requirements that apply to lớn all 0.50% sulphur fuels and confirms the applicability of ISO 8217 for those fuels. It gives technical considerations which might apply to particular fuels for the following characteristics: kinematic viscosity; cold flow properties; stability; ignition characteristics; and catalyst fines. Additionally, it provides considerations on the compatibility between fuels & gives additional information on ISO 8217.
7. What did nofxfans.com vị to help shipowners comply with the 0.50% sulphur limit?
To assist ship operators & owners to plan ahead for the 0.50% sulphur 2020 limit, the MEPC approved various guidance & guidelines.
The 2019 Guidelines on consistent implementation of 0.50% sulphur limit under MARPOL Annex VI adopted by resolution MEPC.320(74) are available here.
These comprehensive guidelines include a template for a "Fuel Oil Non-Availability Report (FONAR)" phối out in Appendix 1 and a "Technical reviews of identified possible potential safety implications associated with the use of 2020 compliant fuels" phối out in appendix 2.
Guidance on ship implementation planning (issued November 2018) can be downloaded here.
The ship implementation planning guidance includes sections on: risk assessment and mitigation plan (impact of new fuels); fuel oil system modifications & tank cleaning (if needed); fuel oil capacity và segregation capability; procurement of compliant fuel; fuel oil changeover plan (conventional residual fuel oils to 0.50% sulphur compliant fuel oil); và documentation and reporting.
Guidance on best practice for fuel oil suppliers was also issued. The Guidance is intended lớn assist fuel oil purchasers và users in assuring the chất lượng of fuel oil delivered to và used on board ships, with respect to lớn both compliance with the MARPOL requirements and the safe and efficient operation of the ship. The guidance pertains lớn aspects of the fuel oil purchase up to the loading of the purchased fuel oil on board.
A full danh mục of guidance and guidelines can be found on the infographic.
8. What is the "carriage ban" and how does it work?
The carriage ban refers lớn the MARPOL amendment adopted in 2018 lớn prohibit the carriage of non-compliant fuel oil for combustion purposes for propulsion or operation on board a ship - unless the ship has an exhaust gas cleaning system ("scrubber") fitted.
The amendment is intended as an additional measure to support consistent implementation và compliance & provides a means for effective enforcement by States, particularly port State control.
The specific provision requires that fuel oil used on board ships shall not exceed 0.50% sulphur limit. The amended provision to prohibit the carriage of non-compliant fuel oil reads as follows: "The sulphur content of fuel oil used or carried for use on board a ship shall not exceed 0.50% m/m.”
This MARPOL amendment entered into force on 1 March 2020. The full text of the MARPOL amendment can be downloaded here.
As a result, carriage of fuel oil for use on board ships is now prohibited if the sulphur nội dung exceeds 0.50%.
Regulation 2.9 of MARPOL Annex VI provides the definition for "fuel oil" - "Fuel oil means any fuel delivered to và intended for combustion purposes for propulsion or operation on board a ship, including gas, distillate and residual fuels."
The provision does not apply lớn fuel oil being carried as cargo.
9. Bởi small ships have to comply with the sulphur limit?
Yes, the MARPOL regulations apply khổng lồ all ships. Only larger ships of 400 gross tonnage and above engaged in voyages khổng lồ ports or offshore terminals under the jurisdiction of other Parties have khổng lồ obtain an International Air Pollution Prevention Certificate, issued by the ship’s flag State. But all sizes of ships must use fuel oil that meets the 0.50% limit since 1 January 2020.
Some smaller ships were already using fuel oil that meets the limit, such as a marine distillate suitable for their engines.
10. Does the sulphur limit only apply khổng lồ ships on international voyages?
The sulphur oxides regulation (MARPOL Annex VI, regulation 14) applies to all ships, whether they are on international voyages, between two or more countries; or domestic voyages, solely within the waters of a các buổi tiệc nhỏ to the MARPOL Annex.
11. Are all types of scrubbers allowed under nofxfans.com rules?
Yes, so long as they achieve the same cấp độ of emissions reduction.
Regulation 4 of MARPOL Annex VI allows for Administrations (flag States) to lớn approve "equivalents" - any "fitting, material, appliance or apparatus khổng lồ be fitted in a ship or other procedures, alternative fuel oils, or compliance methods used as an alternative lớn that required" - that enables the same standards of emission control to lớn be met.
For reduction of sulphur oxide emissions, flag States have accepted & approved scrubbers - otherwise known as "Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems" (EGCS) as meeting the requirements for sulphur oxide reduction.
There is an important requirement in the same regulation on Equivalents, which says that in paragraph 4 "The Administration of a tiệc ngọt that allows the use of an equivalent …. Shall endeavour not to impair or damage its environment, human health, property, or resources, or those of other States".
nofxfans.com has adopted strict criteria for discharge of washwater from EGCS. Any residues generated by the EGC unit, usually in a closed-loop configuration, should be delivered ashore to adequate reception facilities. Such residues should not be discharged to the sea or incinerated on board.
Open-loop scrubbers địa chỉ water to lớn the exhaust gas which turns sulphur oxides (SOx) khổng lồ sulphates/sulphuric acid, before returning washwater khổng lồ the sea. The washwater must meet strict criteria, including a pH of no less than 6.5. There are also strict limits on discharge of PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) và nitrates.
The guidelines, with the washwater criteria, (last revised and adopted in 2015), have been under review by the nofxfans.com Sub-Committee on Pollution Prevention & Response (PPR). The Sub-Committee finalized its work on revising the năm ngoái Guidelines in February 2020 và they will be submitted to MEPC 76 for adoption.
In May 2019, the Marine Environment Protection committee (MEPC) asked the PPR Sub-Committee lớn look into "Evaluation and harmonization of rules & guidance on the discharge of liquid effluents from EGCS into waters, including conditions & areas".
To assist the discussions, a report from a task team established by the Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP) was submitted. This report contains the conclusions of the task team in relation khổng lồ the available evidence on the environmental effects of discharge water from EGCS, as well as recommendations on the data, tools and approaches that could be used as basis for conducting a risk assessment of the possible effects of discharges.
Following discussion in a working group, the PPR Sub-Committee (February 2020) agreed khổng lồ recommend khổng lồ the MEPC that its future work should look at evaluation & harmonization of rules and guidance on the discharge of discharge water from EGCS into the aquatic environment, including conditions & areas.
The scope of the work should include:risk assessment (development of risk assessment guidelines for the evaluation of possible harmful effects of the discharge water from EGCS, taking into trương mục existing methods và mathematical models); impact assessment (to consider developing impact assessment guidelines); delivery of EGCS residues (developing guidance on delivery of EGCS residues to port reception facilities, regarding volumes and composition of residues); regulatory matters (including assessing state of giải pháp công nghệ for EGCS discharge water treatment and control, identifying possible regulatory measures, developing a database of local/regional restrictions/conditions on the discharge water from EGCS; database of substances (establishing a database of substances identified in EGCS discharge water, covering physico-chemical data, ecotoxicological data and toxicological data, leading lớn relevant endpoints for risk assessment purposes).
The MEPC was invited lớn approve the planned scope of work & to consider involving GESAMP for scientific advice. This discussion is expected lớn take place at MEPC 76, scheduled lớn meet in June 2021.
12. Why have some ports already banned discharge of washwater?
Some nofxfans.com member States have taken a precautionary approach towards washwater discharge and have taken measures to lớn limit or restrict discharge of washwater in their local ports và coastlines.
States have the right under UNCLOS to adopt their own laws & measures lớn reduce & control pollution of the marine environment from ships in their ports, internal waters & territorial seas.
13. Where can I find out which ships have scrubbers or are using other equivalents?
The nofxfans.com GISIS module on MARPOL annex VI includes a các mục of notifications received from nofxfans.com thành viên States in relation khổng lồ Regulation 4.2 Equivalent compliance method. You can view the database here.
14. Is a FONAR a waiver?
The 2019 Guidelines on consistent implementation of 0.50% sulphur limit under MARPOL Annex VI adopted by resolution MEPC.320(74) here clearly state (in APPENDIX 1):"3.1 A fuel oil non-availability report is not an exemption. According lớn regulation 18.2 of MARPOL Annex VI, it is the responsibility of the tiệc nhỏ of the destination port, through its competent authority, to lớn scrutinize the information provided and take action, as appropriate.""3.2 In the case of insufficiently supported and/or repeated claims of non-availability, the buổi tiệc nhỏ may require additional documentation and substantiation of fuel oil non-availability claims. The ship/operator may also be subject to lớn more extensive inspections or examinations while in port.""3.3 Ships/operators are expected to take into trương mục logistical conditions and/or terminal/port policies when planning bunkering, including but not limited khổng lồ having khổng lồ change berth or anchor within a port or terminal in order khổng lồ obtain compliant fuel." "3.4 Ships/operators are expected khổng lồ prepare as far as reasonably practicable to lớn be able to lớn operate on compliant fuel oils. This could include, but is not limited to, fuel oils with different viscosity & different sulphur nội dung not exceeding regulatory requirements (requiring different lube oils) as well as requiring heating and/or other treatment on board."
How does shipping compare to other forms of transport in terms of air pollution?
Ships bởi vì emit pollutants và other harmful emissions, but they have always been and remain the most sustainable way to lớn transport commodities và goods.
When considering the emissions per tonne of cargo carried, per kilometre travelled, studies have shown that ships are by far the most energy-efficient khung of transportation, compared with other modes such as aviation, road trucks & even railways.
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Ships transport large quantities of vital goods across the world’s oceans – & seaborne trade continues to lớn increase. In 2019, seaborne trade by volume reached 11.08 billion tons. In 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, a fall of 4.1% was forecast, according to UNCTAD - but shipping continued khổng lồ move huge volumes of trade.
Meanwhile, ships are increasingly becoming even more energy efficient. nofxfans.com regulations on energy efficiency tư vấn the transition lớn ever greener & cleaner shipping. A ship which is more energy efficient burns less fuel so emits less air pollution. Click here to read more on the nofxfans.com Strategy on the reduction of GHG emissions from ships.